SNIP-24: Query permits for SNIP-20 tokens
This document describes a querying method for SNIP-20 tokens that is superior to using viewing keys. Contracts that support the existing SNIP-20 standard are still considered compliant, and clients should be written to benefit from these features when available, but provide fallback for when these features are not available.
The feature specified in this document is an improved UX for the Allowance, Balance, TransferHistory & TransactionHistory queries, aimed at enriching SNIP-20 (and SNIP-721) tokens usage and onset for new users.

Rationale

The Problem with Viewing Keys

Viewing keys are passwords meant to validate users at times when the blockchain cannot. Specifically in queries, the query sender isn't authenticated and the contract doesn't know who is the querier. Therefore viewing keys were invented to provide a way of access control for users:
  1. 1.
    Alice sends a transaction set_viewing_key(password)
  2. 2.
    The contract stores (alice,password)
  3. 3.
    Later on, a query is sent to the contract query("balance",alice,password)
    • If (alice,password) matches what's in storage, the contract returns Alice's balance to the querier.
The main disadvantage of this method is that Alice must send a transaction before she can query her balance. This is bad UX for users new to Secret Network - Also because they have to pay SCRT gas to get a basic piece of information, but especially when traffic is high and nodes lag behind, queried nodes might have the query("balance") answer but can't authenticate the querier because the node still didn't catch up with the set_viewing_key() transaction.

Query Permits

Query permits are an alternative way of authenticating the querier. Instead of storing a password in the contract's state, the users signs a piece of data with their private keys, and then sends this data and the signature to the contract along with the query. The contract then validates the signature against the data, and returns an answer if the signature is validated.
This way users don't have to send a transaction before they can access their data.
Also note that the querier doesn't send the account's address to the contract, as the contract derives it from the public key attached to the signature.

Data Structures

The data structure for query permits was chosen to accommodate existing tools in the ecosystem, namely Keplr & secretd which already know how to sign this and don't require extra code and support.

Permit content - StdSignDoc

The data being signed is a cosmos-sdk StdSignDoc with some constraints.
// StdSignDoc is replay-prevention structure.
// It includes the result of msg.GetSignBytes(),
// as well as the ChainID (prevent cross chain replay)
// and the Sequence numbers for each signature (prevent
// inchain replay and enforce tx ordering per account).
type StdSignDoc struct {
AccountNumber uint64 `json:"account_number" yaml:"account_number"`
ChainID string `json:"chain_id" yaml:"chain_id"`
Fee json.RawMessage `json:"fee" yaml:"fee"`
Memo string `json:"memo" yaml:"memo"`
Msgs []json.RawMessage `json:"msgs" yaml:"msgs"`
Sequence uint64 `json:"sequence" yaml:"sequence"`
}
Field
Comment
AccountNumber
must be 0
ChainID
free-form, but when signing with Keplr must use the current chain-id
Fee
must be 0uscrt with 1 gas
Memo
must be an empty string
Msgs
an array with only one message of the type PermitMsg
Sequence
must be 0
Note that ChainID can be just a free-form string, but Keplr enforces that it's the current chain-id. The contract doesn't care about chain-id and it just checks that the signature is correct. In practice a user can sign a permit on chain-id secret-3 and later on send it on chain-id secret-4 and it will be validated correctly (and that's okay!).
PermitMsg
PermitMsg is the only message allowed in Msgs.
{
"type": "query_permit",
"value": {
"permit_name": "<free-form string>",
"allowed_tokens": ["<address_token_1>", "<address_token_2>", "..."],
"permissions": ["balance", "history", "allowance"]
}
}
  • type is always the string query_permit.
  • value.permit_name is a free-form string. The user can later revoke this permit using this name.
  • value.allowed_tokens is a list of token addresses to which this permit applies.
  • value.permissions is an array that may contain balance, history and allowance.
    • balance - gives permission to query the balance of the permit signer.
    • history - gives permission to query the transfer_history and transaction_history of the permit signer.
    • allowance - gives permission to query the allowance of the permit signer as an owner and as a spender.
Full Example
{
"chain_id": "secret-4",
"account_number": "0",
"sequence": "0",
"msgs": [
{
"type": "query_permit",
"value": {
"permit_name": "test",
"allowed_tokens": ["secret18vd8fpwxzck93qlwghaj6arh4p7c5n8978vsyg"],
"permissions": ["balance"]
}
}
],
"fee": {
"amount": [
{
"denom": "uscrt",
"amount": "0"
}
],
"gas": "1"
},
"memo": ""
}

Signature

Signature is a JSON object of this type:
{
"pub_key": {
"type": "tendermint/PubKeySecp256k1",
"value": "<33 bytes of secp256k1 pubkey as base64>"
},
"signature": "<64 bytes of secp256k1 signature as base64>"
}
It's the output of window.keplr.signAmino() & secretd tx sign-doc, and represents a signature on the permit's content with the secp256k1 private key of the account.
Reference implementations for how to create this signature:

Messages

RevokePermit

A way for users to revoke permits that they signed in the past.
Request
Name
Type
Description
optional
name
string
The name of the permit
no
padding
string
Ignored string used to maintain constant-length messages
yes
{
"revoke_permit": {
"name": "some name"
}
}
Response
{
"revoke_permit": {
"status": "success"
}
}

Queries

WithPermit

WithPermit wraps all the queries that support permits.
{
"with_permit": {
"query": {
"allowance/balance/transfer_history/transaction_history": { "...": "..." }
},
"permit": {
"params": {
"permit_name": "<some name>",
"allowed_tokens": ["<address_token_1>", "<address_token_2>", "..."],
"chain_id": "<some chain-id>",
"permissions": ["balance", "history", "allowance"]
},
"signature": {
"pub_key": {
"type": "tendermint/PubKeySecp256k1",
"value": "<33 bytes of secp256k1 pubkey as base64>"
},
"signature": "<64 bytes of secp256k1 signature as base64>"
}
}
}
}
Allowance
This returns the available allowance that spender can access from the owner's account, along with the expiration info.
The expiration field of the response may be either null or unset if no expiration has been set.
Request
Name
Type
Description
optional
with_permit.query.allowance.owner
string
Account from which tokens are allowed to be taken
no
with_permit.query.allowance.spender
string
Account which is allowed to spend tokens on behalf of the owner
no
{
"allowance": { "owner": "<address>", "spender": "<address>" }
}
Response
{
"allowance": {
"spender": "<address>",
"owner": "<address>",
"allowance": "<current allowance>",
"expiration": 1234
}
}
Balance
Returns the balance of the given address. Returns "0" if the address is unknown to the contract.
Request
{
"balance": {}
}
Response
{
"balance": {
"amount": "123"
}
}
TransferHistory
Request
Name
Type
Description
optional
with_permit.query.transfer_history.page_size
number
Number of transactions to return, starting from the latest. i.e. n=1 will return only the latest transaction
no
with_permit.query.transfer_history.page
number
Defaults to 0. Specifying a positive number will skip page * page_size txs from the start.
yes
{
"transfer_history": {
"page_size": 10,
"page": 0
}
}
Response
{
"transfer_history": {
"txs": [
{
"id": 123,
"from": "secret1xyz",
"sender": "secret1xyz",
"receiver": "secret1xyz",
"coins": {
"denom": "FOOBAR",
"amount": "123000000"
},
"block_time": 12006,
"block_height": 101
}
]
}
}
TransactionHistory
See SNIP21/TransactionHistory for full description.
Request
Name
Type
Description
optional
with_permit.query.transaction_history.page_size
number
Number of transactions to return, starting from the latest. i.e. n=1 will return only the latest transaction
no
with_permit.query.transaction_history.page
number
Defaults to 0. Specifying a positive number will skip page * page_size txs from the start.
yes
{
"transaction_history": {
"page_size": 10,
"page": 0
}
}
Response
{
"transaction_history": {
"total": 200,
"txs": [
{
"id": "optional ID",
"block_time": 12000,
"block_height": 100,
"coins": {
"denom": "coin denomination/name",
"amount": "Uint128"
},
"memo": "private message",
"action": {}
}
]
}
}

Client Usage Examples

Keplr

const permitName = "secretswap.io";
const allowedTokens = ["secret18vd8fpwxzck93qlwghaj6arh4p7c5n8978vsyg"];
const permissions = ["balance" /* , "history", "allowance" */];
const { signature } = await window.keplr.signAmino(
chainId,
myAddress,
{
chain_id: chainId,
account_number: "0", // Must be 0
sequence: "0", // Must be 0
fee: {
amount: [{ denom: "uscrt", amount: "0" }], // Must be 0 uscrt
gas: "1", // Must be 1
},
msgs: [
{
type: "query_permit", // Must be "query_permit"
value: {
permit_name: permitName,
allowed_tokens: allowedTokens,
permissions: permissions,
},
},
],
memo: "", // Must be empty
},
{
preferNoSetFee: true, // Fee must be 0, so hide it from the user
preferNoSetMemo: true, // Memo must be empty, so hide it from the user
}
);
const { balance } = await secretjs.queryContractSmart(
"secret18vd8fpwxzck93qlwghaj6arh4p7c5n8978vsyg",
{
with_permit: {
query: { balance: {} },
permit: {
params: {
permit_name: permitName,
allowed_tokens: allowedTokens,
chain_id: chainId,
permissions: permissions,
},
signature: signature,
},
},
}
);
console.log(balance.amount);

secretd

$ echo '{
"chain_id": "secret-4",
"account_number": "0",
"sequence": "0",
"msgs": [
{
"type": "query_permit",
"value": {
"permit_name": "test",
"allowed_tokens": [
"secret18vd8fpwxzck93qlwghaj6arh4p7c5n8978vsyg"
],
"permissions": ["balance"]
}
}
],
"fee": {
"amount": [
{
"denom": "uscrt",
"amount": "0"
}
],
"gas": "1"
},
"memo": ""
}' > ./permit.json
$ secretd tx sign-doc ./permit.json --from yo > ./sig.json
$ secretd q compute query secret18vd8fpwxzck93qlwghaj6arh4p7c5n8978vsyg '{"with_permit":{"query":{"balance":{}},"permit":{"params":{"permit_name":"test","allowed_tokens":["secret18vd8fpwxzck93qlwghaj6arh4p7c5n8978vsyg"],"chain_id":"secret-4","permissions":["balance"]},"signature":'"$(cat ./sig.json)"'}}}'
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Rationale
Data Structures
Messages
Queries
Client Usage Examples