Native On-chain randomness

A step-by-step tutorial of how to use Secret Network's randomness API to generate a coin flip

In this tutorial, you will learn how to access the randomness feature and use it with a smart contract that returns a truly random coin flip πŸŽ‰

For a detailed feature explainer head to the network technical documentation

Import Secret VRF

In your Cargo.toml file, add secret-toolkit-storage 0.9.0:

[dependencies]
cosmwasm-std = { package = "secret-cosmwasm-std", version = "1.1.10" }
cosmwasm-storage = { package = "secret-cosmwasm-storage", version = "1.1.10" }
secret-toolkit-storage = "0.9.0"

Make sure you're compiling with rust < 1.70. Newer versions are currently not compatible.

Tutorial - Coin Flip

What follows is a step-by-step tutorial of how to use Secret Network's randomness API to generate a coin flip (returning either 0 or 1) with true randomness. You can follow along and/or view the completed code in this repo.

Environment Configuration

LocalSecret is a tool that allows you to run a local Secret Network on your machine for testing and development purposes.

Here are the steps to use the randomness feature with LocalSecret:

  1. Clone the Secret Labs examples repo and then navigate to the vrf-randomness-tutorial folder:

git clone https://github.com/scrtlabs/examples.git

Contract.rs

To consume the random number, you need to import the necessary dependencies in your contract.rs file in order to access the random number from the env parameter.

In your contract, import the necessary dependencies (these are already imported in the cloned repo):

use cosmwasm_std::{Binary, Env, MessageInfo, Response, Result};

In the contract's entry point (e.g., execute, instantiate, or query), you can access the random number from the env parameter:

#[entry_point]
pub fn execute(
    deps: DepsMut,
    env: Env,
    _info: MessageInfo,
    msg: ExecuteMsg,
) -> Result<Response, ContractError> {
    match msg {
        ExecuteMsg::Flip {} => try_flip(deps, env),
    }
}

The env and block_info structures are defined as:

pub struct Env {
    pub block: BlockInfo,
    pub contract: ContractInfo,
    pub transaction: Option<TransactionInfo>,
}

pub struct BlockInfo {
    /// The height of a block is the number of blocks preceding it in the blockchain.
    pub height: u64,
    pub time: Timestamp,
    pub chain_id: String,
    #[cfg(feature = "random")]
    #[serde(skip_serializing_if = "Option::is_none")]
    pub random: Option<Binary>,
}

Where random is 32 bytes and base64 encoded.

Accessing the Env struct

Below is a simple coin flip function that uses the randomness feature:

pub fn try_flip(deps: DepsMut, env: Env) -> Result<Response, ContractError> {
    config(deps.storage).update(|mut state| -> Result<_, ContractError> {
        let coin_flip = env.block.random.unwrap().0[0] % 2;
        state.flip = coin_flip;
        Ok(state)
    })?;

    deps.api.debug("flipped!");
    Ok(Response::default())
}

try_flip() uses the config function to update the state of the smart contract by flipping a coin and storing the result in the flip field in the state variable. Specifically, it generates a random number using the random field of the env.block object, which is an optional value representing the most recent block's metadata, and takes the modulo 2 to obtain a value of either 0 or 1. It then updates the flip field of the state variable to this value.

Interacting with the Coin Flip Contract

Now, let's compile, upload, instantiate, and execute the contract to see it in action!

Compile

To compile your contract, in your terminal, make sure you have docker open, and then run:

docker run --rm -v "$(pwd)":/contract \                       
  --mount type=volume,source="$(basename "$(pwd)")_cache",target=/code/target \
  --mount type=volume,source=registry_cache,target=/usr/local/cargo/registry \
  enigmampc/secret-contract-optimizer

This returns the optimized contract wasm file, ie contract.wasm.gz

Upload

To upload your contract to a containerized version of LocalSecret in docker, make sure you have docker installed and open, and then create a new tab in your terminal and run:

docker run -it --rm -p 26657:26657 -p 26656:26656 -p 1317:1317 -p 5000:5000 --name localsecret ghcr.io/scrtlabs/localsecret

Congrats, you now have a new instance of LocalSecret running that can access the random number feature!

Next, create and fund a wallet so you can upload the contract to LocalSecret. Then run the following to upload:

secretcli tx compute store contract.wasm.gz --gas 5000000 --from <your wallet address> --chain-id secretdev-1

To confirm that the contract upload was successful:

secretcli query compute list-code

Instantiate

Now let's instantiate our contract with a starting flip of 1 (1 meaning Heads or Tales, up to you!)

secretcli tx compute instantiate 1 '{"flip": 1}' --from <your wallet address> --label flipContract

To confirm that the contract instantiation was successful:

secretcli query compute list-contract-by-code 1

Execute

Now that we have a contract address (which is returned from the list-contract-by-code query above), we an execute the coin flip with the randomness feature!

To flip the coin simply run:

secretcli tx compute execute <your contract address> '{"flip": {}}' --from myWallet

And to query that it was successful, run:

secretcli query compute query <your contract address> '{"get_flip": {}}'

You might have to execute the flip function a few times to see the queried flip change, since there is a 50% chance the flip will return the same number :D

Summary

Congrats! In this step-by-step tutorial on creating a coin flip contract, you learned how to compile, upload, instantiate, and execute a contract on LocalSecret using Secret Network's randomness API to generate random numbers πŸŽ‰ For documentation on Secret VRF in a contract on another IBC-connected chain, click here.

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