This hashmap-like storage structure uses generic typed keys to store objects.

What are Keymaps?

A Keymap is Secret toolkit hashmap-like storage structure that uses generic typed keys to store objects. It allows iteration with paging over keys and/or items without guaranteed ordering, although the order of insertion is preserved until you remove objects.

An example use-case for a keymap is if you want to contain a large amount of votes and iterate over them in the future. Since iterating over large amounts of data at once may be prohibitive, a keymap allows you to specify the amount of data that will be returned in each page. We will implement this voting example below to show how keymaps can be utilized in your own projects.

Importing the subpackage

To import this package (and also the packages that we will be using for unit tests), add the following dependencies to your Cargo.toml file

cosmwasm-std = { package = "secret-cosmwasm-std", version = "1.1.10" }
cosmwasm-storage = { package = "secret-cosmwasm-storage", version = "1.1.10" }
secret-toolkit-storage = "0.9.0"

Configuring the testing environment

To import and initialize a keymap, use the following packages in your test environment:

mod tests {
    use secret_toolkit_storage::{Item, Keymap};
    use serde::{Deserialize, Serialize};
    use cosmwasm_std::testing::MockStorage;
    use cosmwasm_std::StdResult;

Now let's write our first test!

Inserting key-value pairs into a Keymap

Let's start by creating a function that inserts key-value pairs into a keymap. This code defines a test function called test_keymap_perf_vote_insert() that creates a new Keymap that maps Vec<u8> keys to String values, and then inserts 1000 key-value pairs into the Keymap. Each key is a Vec<u8> containing an integer from 0 to 999, and each value is a String containing the text "I vote yes".

    fn test_keymap_perf_vote_insert() -> StdResult<()> {
        let mut storage = MockStorage::new();

        let total_items = 1000;

        let keymap: Keymap<Vec<u8>, String> = Keymap::new(b"votes");

        for i in 0..total_items {
            let key: Vec<u8> = (i as i32).to_be_bytes().to_vec();
            let value = String::from("I vote yes");
            keymap.insert(&mut storage, &key, &value)?;

        assert_eq!(keymap.get_len(&storage)?, 1000);


This test is passing! Which means that it asserts that the Keymap contains 1000 key-value pairs, which map a number from 0 - 999 with the string "I vote yes."

Iterating with Keymaps

There are two methods that create an iterator in Keymap. These are .iter and .iter_keys. iter_keys only iterates over the keys whereas iter iterates over (key, item) pairs. Let's use iter to test the iterator functionality of aKeymap that maps Vec<u8> keys to a struct Vote.

We are going to create a new Keymap that maps Vec<u8> keys to a struct Vote that has two fields, vote and person. It then inserts two key-value pairs into the Keymap, where the keys are the byte vectors b"key1".to_vec() and b"key2".to_vec(), and the values are Vote structs containing information about the vote and the person who cast it.

We then use iter() to check that the size of the iterator is 2, which means there are two key-value pairs in the Keymap:

    fn test_keymap_votes_iter() -> StdResult<()> {
        let mut storage = MockStorage::new();

        let alice = "alice";
        let bob = "bob";

        #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Eq, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
        struct Vote {
            vote: String,
            person: String,

        let keymap: Keymap<Vec<u8>, Vote> = Keymap::new(b"votes");
        let vote1 = Vote {
            vote: "I vote yes".to_string(),
            person: alice.to_string(),
        let vote2 = Vote {
            vote: "I vote no".to_string(),
            person: bob.to_string(),

        keymap.insert(&mut storage, &b"key1".to_vec(), &vote1)?;
        keymap.insert(&mut storage, &b"key2".to_vec(), &vote2)?;

        let mut x = keymap.iter(&storage)?;
        let (len, _) = x.size_hint();
        assert_eq!(len, 2);

        assert_eq!(, (b"key1".to_vec(), vote1));

        assert_eq!(, (b"key2".to_vec(), vote2));


Our test is passing! This means that the first element returned by the iterator matches the expected key-value pair for key1, and that the second element returned by the iterator matches the expected key-value pair for key2.

Additional Resources

For further examples demonstrating the usage of keymaps, refer to the Secret Toolkit repo here.

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